Shadowrun's melee combat system does very little to model martial arts, much to many players' annoyance. Even worse, it also makes many normally good combat moves near suicidal. Many realistically sound combat options impose a target number penalty that results in the user loosing the fight, even if they are very skilled, or have a Specialization in a "martial arts" skill that should allow that type of move.
To these ends, Style skills reflect advanced melee training not just by sometimes giving the player more dice to roll on the test, but by changing its difficulty or outcome in a way basic melee combat skill use and rules can not. They do not change any of the basic rules of melee combat- all current Shadowrun melee rules are still used, and only test by characters using the Style skills are affected.
Players who do not care to have their characters use these skills can ignore them and play melee combat as normal, with no conflict arising. They may be assumed to be skilled generalists, their ability reflected by the level of their basic combat skills. The skills are written so that hopefully, with that and their cost in karma, they give their user an edge but not an unbeatable advantage.
When using a Style skill, a combatant sometimes has to choose between gaining a maneuver's effect or rolling a few more combat pool dice than their Style skill will allow. Some of the most powerful Style Skills also have drawbacks or limitations on their use - using Berserk Style Skill can be very dangerous! Additionally, learning style skills requires karma that could be spent raising other skills. However, characters who specialize in melee combat may find Style skills an edge that can allow them to beat the odds, or at least add more useful options to their combat repertoire. They also add flavor to a character, making a martial artist a true artist, and not just a guy whose player gets to roll lots of dice.
Melee Combat Style special skills represent training beyond the basics of any single martial art or combat system, but they do not model any specific martial art, because they can be used to assist any melee combat skill. However, the Styles often reflect the strengths of particular martial arts systems and can be used to model special training in those schools. Most martial artists would learn a combination of Style skills that worked well together, as well as several melee Combat skills.
Learning Style Skills
Each style is a separate skill, with specialization in all general melee combat skills (such as "Edged Weapons" or "Unarmed Combat"), including "Sorcery" as astral combat. Starting characters may buy Style skills with active or knowledge skill points, but may not spend more knowledge points than active points on buying Style skills. For purposes of skill point costs, use strength as the governing attribute. Since style skills reflect advanced training, starting characters may not have more points in Style skills than normal melee combat skills, and none may exceed their highest unspecialized melee combat skill.
When purchased during game play, all style skills are treated as Knowledge skills for purposes of Karma cost. However, their "governing attribute" is the character's highest (unspecialized) melee combat skill.
Adepts can "buy" bonus levels in Style Skills for .25 Power Points per level, with the bonus actually adding to that skill rating. Reflex Recorders bought for a Style Skill actually raise the skill (unlike with other skills) but add no dice directly to tests.
Bobby Bruiser gets Enhanced Articulation and a Reflex Recorder for her Physical Style skill. Her Physical Style Skill goes from 5 to 6 for all uses, including determining combat pool use. Her enhanced articulation adds a die to her melee tests, but has no effect on how good a physical maneuver she can incorporate in an attack - her general Unarmed Combat skill is still 4, so that is the physical style maneuver's maximum level.
Finding a teacher, or the training software equivalent, might be difficult, and teaching costs are likely to be higher than normal. Initiatory adept groups often teach Style Skills as part of their initiation, even requiring knowledge of certain styles before allowing Initiatory advancement. This could be part of the group strictures, or part of a special ordeal. Mundane teachers would probably be less restrictive, but perhaps not as skilled.
Combat Styles are not used as normal Skillsofts, since the style would over-ride the users combat skill. Instead, a character must have a Knowsoft Link and Skillwires to use Melee Style Skillsofts. The rating of the Style 'soft is limited to the Skillwire's rating and processing power (the Skillsoft will consume Skillwire ASIST and Pulse rating as usual). Melee Style 'softs are the same size as Activesofts of the same rating, and cost as much as Knowsofts.
Style Use Rules
Style Skills have several effects. First, the Style skills themselves may provide a useful skill. Second, they can be used for Maneuvers that produce a particular effect, as described below. Third, they determine the number of Combat Pool dice that can be used in a melee Combat test.
As a stand alone skill, the style skill's use or effect will be noted in its description. This may be an additional effect on melee, or an ability that is useful outside combat.
Secondly, before the combat test is made, a Maneuver based on the Style skill used is declared and assigned a level of the users choosing (up to the maximum as described below). The Maneuver's impact on the test is based on the Style skill used and the level assigned. To reflect the attackers slight edge, she may choose her Maneuvers after hearing her targets Maneuver choices, if any.
The maximum level a Maneuver effect may be assigned is equal to the lower of the combatant's Style skill rating or the appropriate melee general Combat Skill rating. The rating of the Specialization (e.g. "Swords" as opposed to "Edged Weapons") used has no impact on the Maneuver's maximum level- use the rating of the base skill. Note that you may also choose to use a lower level Maneuver effect than this maximum if you wish, to avoid possible consequences of using certain Maneuvers. Enhanced Articulation and other items or magic (like "improved ability") that add dice to a melee test do not help here, as the do not affect the actual Combat Skill rating. A Weapon Focus does actually add to the character's weapon combat skill, and will help style skill use by allowing higher rating maneuvers to be used.
Third, the number of Combat Pool dice the Style skill user can roll may change. As usual, she rolls a base number of dice equal to the Combat Skill used. Up to as many dice from Combat Pool as the rating of the Style skill used may be added to this roll, instead of dice equal to the Combat skill used. This may be higher or lower than the Combat skill used, and as such is both a benefit and a drawback to using Style skills. Most styles can be used this way even if the maneuver they allow is not used. Note that a Maneuver can be given an effect level of "zero", meaning the Style skill is used only for the combat pool dice it allows. This is useful if your Style skill is higher than the Combat skill you are using, but not all Style skills can be used in all circumstances.
Only one Style skill and its associated Maneuver may be used to affect any single combat test. When on Full defense, combat pool use is unaffected, but the Maneuver's level of effect is still limited as above. Style skills cannot be used in a test with Two Weapon Combat special skills, and may have other limits listed with the skill. Most of the Style skills are usable underwater, but GM discretion is advised. Style skills can not be defaulted to or from, and are not used as complimentary skills in combat. Other limits and effects may be noted with the Style skill's description; some style Skill Maneuvers affect the number of dice rolled and their source, or the TN of the Combat Success test.
Bobby Bruiser has "Unarmed Combat, Boxing" at 4/6, a strength of 7, and 6 dice in her combat pool. She also has Physical Style 5. She's really mad and wants to break her opponent's skull instead of just punching him for normal unarmed boxing damage, which is what a maneuver with physical style is made for- It turns Stun Damage into physical at one box per maneuver level. Her opponent is our old friend Zipperhead ; body 5, strength 4, Unarmed Combat 5, 4 combat pool dice available. Bobby can roll her 6 dice for Unarmed combat (boxing), and only up to 5 from combat pool, since she is using a rating 5 style skill. She can only use a level 4 Maneuver effect, because her general unarmed skill is 4. She goes all out, rolling a total of 11 dice in her Combat Success test. Zipperhead rolls 9 dice. Both have a TN of 4. Bobby rolls 14,5,5,4,4,4,3,2,2,2,1. Zipperhead rolls 10,9,5,4,3,3,3,2,2. Bobby has 2 net successes, so Zipperhead must resist 7S stun. She's wearing a lined coat, reducing that to 5S. Zipperhead rolls 8,4,3,3,2 for damage resistance, so she takes Serious stun. However, we see from the physical style rules that Bobby's maneuver will cause the attack to inflict up to 4 boxes on the physical track: the remaining 2 boxes go on the mental track. Had Zipperhead been wearing an armored jacket, she would have only taken a moderate stun, but all 3 boxes would transferred to the physical condition track by the Physical Maneuver's effect.
If Bobby later uses her Clubs (tonfa) of 2/4 and a Physical Maneuver, she could still add up to 5 combat pool dice to the test, but could use only a level 2 Physical Maneuver effect - she's better at "maneuvering" unarmed than with a weapon. She would not have to perform any Physical Maneuver to use the Style for combat pool dice- she could perform a "level zero" Maneuver, and still be allowed to use 5 combat pool dice for the test. If fighting with a knife, she could not use Physical style for combat pool dice, or the Maneuver's effects, because of the styles limitations. She could only make a normal Armed Combat attack.
Melee Combat Style Skills
The classic art of "going berserk". Anyone using Berserk Style skill makes that melee test as if she had an equal level of the "Pain Resistance" adept power.
To use a Berserk maneuver, decide the Maneuver effect level and conduct the attack as usual. However, before determining damage, both the attacker and the defender roll an additional number of dice equal to the Maneuver's assigned level against the same TN as the combat test. If the total number of successes you roll from the combat test, plus successes from the extra Maneuver dice, exceeds the number of successes your opponent rolled in the initial combat test alone, you have scored a hit! Determine damage, using your combined successes against you opponent's successes from the combat test alone. Thus, both attacker and defender maybe hit! This style can be used in any melee test. It tends to be popular with big tough types, who don't care if they get hit...
This Style can not be used with full defense. If full defense is used against a Berserk maneuver, add the maneuver level directly to the defenders combat test dice. The defender can not score a hit while using full defense.
Bobby Bruiser is working hard, fighting an opponent who attacks uses a level 3 Berserk Maneuver. Being well matched, they have both rolled 7 successes. Normally, the tie would go to the attacker. However, before damage is assessed, both combatants roll 3 more dice at the normal TN's. The attacker gets one more success, and Bobby gets two. The attacker has bettered his blow, which now has 1 net success, but Bobby has also landed a blow, with 2 net successes. Both combatants must now resist damage.
Blind Fighting Style
A user of this style can rely partly or wholly on cues from sound and tactile sensation to make successful melee attacks and counters. Therefore, the skill can compliment certain non-visual perception tests (like spotting invisible opponents) if the user is not concentrating on any visual input. The GM may require that they shut their eyes to do so.
Using a Blind Fighting Maneuver reduces the your visibility TN penalties by the Maneuvers level, including the complete dark / blindness / unseen target penalty. Unfortunately, this usually requires you to get close to your opponent and touch him before attacking: this adds half the maneuver's level (rounded down) in dice to your opponent's test. Maneuver levels greater than 4 are rarely useful, but this style can be used with any melee test, even if there is no visibility penalty- learning it adds to your repertoire of general melee techniques.
This is perfect form, "by the book" skill, resulting from intense repetition and honed reflexes. A classic maneuver adds its level in dice to the Combat test. No combat pool dice from any source may be used in the test with a Classic maneuver. As always, the total maneuver levels cannot exceed the basic Combat skill. There is no point in using this style without a maneuver, as it does not allow any combat pool use.
This Style is very useful to characters whose reflexes are faster than normal. However, since the moves are somewhat predictable, its effect is lost if it is used twice in a row against the same opponent. Classic Style can be used for knowledge tests pertaining to melee combat subjects, including many uses of magic theory relating to adepts, or certain parts of military theory relating to close combat. It may also be used as a complimentary skill to your combat skills and teaching skill when teaching any melee skill or style.
This is the ability to move close to you opponent and still fight effectively, getting past their weapons ideal striking range and making it clumsy to use, while you strike unblocked.
First, a Close Maneuver negates 1 point of your opponents reach advantage per 2 levels of maneuver. This can not reduce the targets reach to less than the users reach, but can make them equal.
Additionally, if your opponent is using a weapon (only, not counting either combatants natural reach) with greater reach than yours, and you have negated his reach advantage completely, you may use additional maneuver levels equal to the difference between the weapon's reaches to turn the tables. Each additional Maneuver level used this way subtracts 1 from the your melee combat TN or adds 1 to your opponent's melee combat TN, your choice.
Carla, a troll, has Close Style 5, Unarmed combat 6, and makes an unarmed attack on George, a human wielding a chain whip with Whip skill 6. Neither has any combat pool right now (it's the end of the turn), but Carla could normally use up to 5 combat pool dice for this test. She performs a level 4 Close maneuver with her Unarmed combat attack. The first 2 maneuver levels negate George's 1 point reach advantage, and since his weapon's reach exceeds her weapon's by 2 (she's unarmed, with no weapon), she chooses to have 1 maneuver level go towards lowering her TN 1, and 1 towards raising George's TN. Further Maneuver levels would have no effect, and can not be used. This makes Carla's TN 3, and George's TN 5.
Carla rolls 6 dice - 4,4,3,3,2,1. George rolls his 6 - 6,6,5,2,2,1. Carla hits George, with 1 net success.
A style that focuses on blocks and avoidance. Normally, a defensive maneuver adds its level in dice to the users melee damage resistance test, if she looses the Combat test and is hit.
If used with full defense, the user instead either gains the Maneuvers level in dice for that combat success test (but may not score a hit, despite any other factors), or extra dice for that damage resistance test.
A Defensive Maneuver also subtracts its level from the TN penalty for using a riot shield or other kind of shield in melee combat. This style can be used with any melee test.
Dirty Fightin' Style
Maneuvers that mostly focus on causing the target pain, by means of sophisticated nerve punches, disabling cuts, low blows, or even "Stooge Fu". If used in a successful attack, the maneuver adds +1 to all the victims TN's per net combat success, up to the maneuvers level. The effect is treated similarly to the shock of an electric weapon, and lasts the maneuvers level in turns, minus 1/2 the targets impact armor, minus successes from Body or Willpower against TN 6, for a minimum of the whole next turn. Pain tolerance negates the TN penalty, on a level per level basis. A Pain Editor (and certain BTLs) eliminates the effect entirely. Effects like Hyper dosing can double the effect.
However, the base damage of the attack is one level less (but never less than L). This style can be used with any melee test.
Dirty Fightin' can be used complimentary skill for torture, or to compliment Intimidation if the user can "push around" the target.
Flying Strike Style
If the user is jumping or voluntarily "falling" towards the target, gravity can be used to add the number of meters traveled to the attacks power, limited by the maneuver level. Such maneuvers can be combined with a Levitation spell or jumping ability for impressive leaping or flying attacks.
This style has few applications in defense, and can generally only be used when attacking. It might be used on defense if the users jump was intercepted, in midair or at its endpoint, or if a flying character were attacked, although the GM would have to determine its effect. The maneuver has no effect if used by purely astral characters, as they are not affected by gravity, but the style may still be used (for combat pool dice, for example) if the character is "flying" astrally.
This Style concentrates on joint locks, immobilization, and crushing holds. It can also be used when subduing a target, as it allows you to grasp your opponent and force him prone, holding them there if desired.
After successful use of Grapple Maneuver, the user may "sustain" the grapple; both parties take a +2 to their TN's for all tests relating to other opponents, and the grappling character gains superior position in his melee combat tests with the grappled target as long if the grapple is "sustained". Losing a melee test to the grappled target indicates the grapple is broken.
If a Grapple Maneuver is used on an already grappled target, reduce the targets impact armor by the maneuvers level, as most impact armor protects poorly against choking, joint locks, and other moves that depend on sustained pressure.
Any successful use of a Grapple Maneuver also allows the user to make an opposed Strength vs. Body test to force his target prone, and hold them there as long as the Grapple is sustained. Successes equal to the Maneuver level from the attack test may be counted towards this test, rather than used to stage up damage.
A character who knows the Grapple Style is harder to grapple; when attacked by a successful grapple, the two characters make an opposed Grapple skill test to see if the Grapple Maneuver succeeds- if the target wins, the grapple effects are not applied. They may also use the style to compliment to tests made to break free from other holds.
The Grappling style can only be used on Unarmed attacks or other attacks that allow the character to "grab" his opponent. If a weapon is used, it must be one that causes stun, and its reach is reduced by 1 - this simulates, for example, choking the target with a club or otherwise using it as part of a "lock". Electrical weapons like stun batons generally can not be used with this style, since the style depends on application of leverage to both ends of the weapon.
Multistrike StyleThis style allows the user to better make multiple attacks on his action. The penalty is normally +2 for
each target after the first (p. 123 SR3, "Attacking Multiple Targets"); a Multistrike maneuver reduces the totaled penalty for attacking multiple targets by its level, but also reduces the dice used in the attack test by half its level (round down).
A Multistrike Maneuver may only be performed when attacking on your action, and all attacks must use the same level Multistrike maneuver. Additionally, the user may make more than one attack on a single target, with the same penalty as attacking more than one target, and the same reduction for using the Multistrike maneuver.
One box of the damage normally done to the stun track is shifted to the physical track, per level of Maneuver used. If more levels are used than boxes of damage inflicted, no more extra damage is done.
A character with Physical style may easily locate and ready an object to use as an improvised weapon if they succeed in a Physical Style success test; the GM sets TN based on surroundings and desired weapon type. They receive no penalty for using such improvised weapons, if they find one.
A style that develops strength and focus, using Chi projection, leverage, and other techniques. A power maneuver adds half its level to the power of the attack, rounded down. This effects both damage and knockdown. Karate and Kendo both emphasize Power Styles. This style can be used with any melee test.
A calculated series of moves that allows a predictable result. When using a planned maneuver, the total pool dice rolled are still limited as usual, but you can roll pool dice (combat or karma) equal to the maneuvers level after the initial combat test roll, adding them to the test result! This allows the player to see the results of his opponent's roll before committing combat or other pool dice to the test.
Set Up Style
A Set Up maneuver has no effect on the test it is used with (except to determine combat pool usable). However, if the users next melee combat test is with the character he Set Up, he adds half the maneuvers level to the dice rolled for that one melee combat test with that one opponent. The Eleven Martial art of Karamoleg, and "drunken monkey" kung fu, often emphasize holding your actions, using Set Up maneuvers and full defense against an opponents attacks, then launching your own attack. This style can be used with any melee test.
The reverse of physical style, it shifts one box of physical damage inflicted by an attack to the stun track. It allow the Killing Hands power to be used to cause stun damage. If used with a attack that normally causes only stun damage, a number of boxes of physical overflow up to the level of the maneuver may be ignored, allowing such attacks to cause less physical damage. This can not be used with Monofilament Whips or "Shock" weapons, or to alter damage from such things as poison on blades.
A character with Stun style may easily locate and ready an object to use as an improvised weapon if they succeed in a Stun Style success test, GM sets TN based on surroundings and desired weapon type. They receive no penalty for using such improvised weapons, if they find one.
Surprise Strike Style
Both the Surprise Strike style and Maneuver are usable only if attacking a target you have surprised. A surprise maneuver adds extra dice to the attack beyond combat pool and skill. These dice are equal to however many more successes you got on the surprise test than your target, limited by the maneuver level. Additionally, the modifier for making a called shot is reduced by the same amount.
Surprise strike style may be used to compliment the reaction test when you are ambushing a target using a held action.
A style that concentrates on pushes, throws, sweeps, and intimidation. A successful takedown maneuver adds half its level to the number of successes the target must roll to avoid knock down, knock back, or being forced prone. Even if the target resists all the damage caused by the attack, the target must roll a knockdown test!
Tai Chi, Judo, and staff fighting arts are often taught with a Takedown Style. Takedown maneuvers can be used as long as gravity is in effect - it is often useless underwater, and pointless in astral space. The style can be used with any melee combat test.
A style with behind the back strikes, spins, acrobatics, and moves that turn your attackers against each-other.
Each Maneuver level used negates the effect of one of your opponent's "friends in melee". The user of a Whirling Style also gains access to extra combat pool dice equal to his skill level; these can only be used for melee combat tests where Whirling Style is being used. Whirling Style (and the bonus dice) can only be used if you are out numbered in melee.
Wee Ling is beset by a zillion ninja's, 4 of who attack for melee. Wee has unarmed combat 6, and Whirling Style 5. He can perform a level 4 Whirling Maneuver when attacked by each ninja, offsetting the "friends in melee" modifiers completely. He also gets 5 extra combat pool dice to divide up among melee tests that use "Whirling Style".
An Improvisational style using every part of the body and the environment to its full advantage. A wild Maneuver adds its level in dice from the Combat Pool to the Combat success test, in addition to Combat Pool dice normally allowed for the test. This is useless if combined with Classic Style in one maneuver, but a character may learn both if she wishes. This style can be used with any melee test, as long as you have any combat pool available.
A person using Zen style gets a "Zen pool" equal to his Zen Style skill that refreshes along with other pools. A Zen Maneuver allows dice equal to half its level to be added to the Combat success test from the "Zen Pool", in addition to any combat pool or other dice. Zen Style and Zen maneuvers can be used with any melee test.
Zen style can also be used for meditation, replacing willpower or body in stun and shock recovery tests and other GM approved situations. It can not be used as a complimentary skill or as a centering skill.
As a slightly more complicated and versatile option, characters may incorporate multiple Style skills they know into an attack or defense, allowing them to use more than one kind of Maneuver at a time. There is a limit on how complex a combo-maneuver can be, however! You cannot use more total levels of Maneuvers than the normal base combat skill used for any test. Also, combat pool dice added to the test are limited by the lowest rating Style skill used. All Maneuvers take effect at their assigned level and must otherwise follow the standard rules above. A Style must be normally useable in that situation to be used in a combo.
Jesse the Adept has specialized in "Edged Weapons / Katana" at 4/8, and is using a katana that is an active, bonded, rating 3 weapon focus. She also gets 2 extra dice from improved ability: edged weapon combat. She has Power Style / Edged Weapons at 1/5, and Wild Style / Edged Weapons at 2/4. (Jesse really likes big blades, and hates being called "Jessica". Do the math, breeder boy...)
Jesse is trying to cream Dagbar, a troll wearing full heavy armor and fighting with his Dikoted spurs; she needs all her clout, so she wants to combine maneuvers. She uses a level 3 Wild Maneuver and a level 4 Power maneuver, for 7 maneuver levels total. That's her maximum combo-maneuver rating; her Edged Weapon skill is 7 because of the weapon focus. She rolls 8 "Katana" skill dice, plus 3 for the focus, plus 2 for improved ability, plus 3 from her combat pool for the Wild Maneuver, plus she can use up to 4 more from Combat Pool, since her Wild Style, the lowest rating Style skill used, is 4. She also gets to add 2 to her attack power! She rolls all 16 dice and Dagbar rolls 13 (he's good at Unarmed combat, and has enhanced articulation). Reach is equal, so both have TN's of 4. Jesse uses karma to get 12 successes; the troll gets 8. With her Strength of 6, she is doing 11D: 9M for the katana, +2 power for the maneuver, with 4 successes. She might even hurt the troll, who rolls 15 (body + remaining pool) dice against 5D because of the 6 points of impact armor. Rolling only 4 successes, Dagbar takes a moderate physical wound.
Two Handed Styles
Using this rule, two-weapon combat skills (from Fields of Fire ) may be used with a style skill maneuver. Because it requires concentration and special training, the Two Weapon Combat special skill rating further limits to the combined Maneuver levels allowed and combat pool used. Each level of the Two Weapon special skill allows only one maneuver level or one combat pool die to be used in the test. This is in addition to combat pool limits for using Style skills, and normal limits on maneuver levels.
Bobby Bruiser, mentioned before, learns Escrima at 3, for fighting in the gladiator prisons of Manhattan using 2 clubs. She is still a viscous fighter, choosing to go for physical damage using a physical maneuver. She can roll 8 dice (4 for each club). However, she is restricted to using at most a level 2 Physical Maneuver, because her general clubs skill is only 2. If she does so, she can add only 1 combat pool dice to the test, because, in addition to other limits, she can only use a combination of 3 combat pool dice or maneuver levels, her two weapon combat special skill being 3. If her Physical style skill was only 1, she could only use 1 combat pool die (the limit set by the style skill) and a level 1 maneuver effect.
The above rules assume the use of the Fields of Fire two weapon melee combat rules, but a better option could be to make different two weapon styles melee combat Style skills like the ones above. In fact, my basic effect above was to do just that- I treat the Fields of Fire two weapon skills as one type of specialized style skill, with an effect useful in combo maneuvers or normal tests. By creating a style skill, you could allow other two weapon effects.
For example, a two weapon style could add its maneuver level in dice to the attack made by the "main" weapon, with the maneuver level limited by the lower general skill. This would have some advantages over the Fields of Fire version (full reach and damage for main weapon) but would not allow dice for both weapons to be combined in the combat test. This could represent classic two blade combo's, like "Florentine", rather well, and allows weapon combo's that don't work well under the Fields of Fire rules, such as a knife and club combination (since there is no easy way to "average" the damage codes when one is stun, one physical). Another version might simply allow an attack with each weapon, restricting the combat skill for each to the Maneuver level.
A possible variation on weapon foci is the style focus. The style focus can be either a weapon or an item related to melee combat, such as clothing, armor, or medallions. The style focus adds to a single specialization of a style skill, even granting the skill if the character has none. Bonding costs are the same as a spell category foci, but monetary costs (if available for sale) are half that of a weapon foci. They are enchanted as weapon foci (using those times and target numbers), but again, first bonding karma costs are that of a spell category focus.
Many times style foci are "stacked" with weapon foci, and making such is easier than making a normal "stacked focus"- you can simply treat it as a weapon focus of the total appropriate grade, instead of a "stacked" focus, for design and enchanting TN purposes.